This is an electronic copy of an article previously published by Taylor & Francis; as follows: Lindøe, P.H and Olsen, O.E (2009) Conflicting goals and mixed roles in risk regulation: a case study of the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. Journal of Risk Research, 12(3-4), p. 427-441. DOI:10.1080/13669870902952861 ; This paper discusses the challenge of a regulator being on a position of preventing organisational accidents in high-technology domains when causes are complex, often poorly understood and with an open or hidden expectation of adding values to society. The purpose of the paper is to assess the combination of mixed roles when a regulator combines the task of facilitating resources management along with controlling the accompanied risks â€“ multiple goals that may be in opposition to each other and mixed roles that may serve opposite interests. The roles and goals of Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD), divided after 30 years of successful operation, are used as a case study. The analysis shows that separating the mixed roles of NPD seems reasonable. However, multiple goals embedded in the resource development create dilemmas facing institutions in the market as well as the regulating authorities in their effort to realise their purpose. That cannot be suspended by a shortcut redesign or new division of labour in ministries, directorates or agencies. The Janus face is a reminder of risks as essential human and social phenomena, being particularly true in sectors and arenas where economic, social and technological risks being at stake.