Environmental education in the Netherlands : Creating the willingness to act

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  • Additional Information
    • Contributors:
      MO Europese Studies / European Studies, De Haagse Hogeschool
    • Publication Information:
      The Hague: , 2019.
    • Publication Date:
      2019
    • Abstract:
      The purpose of this dissertation is to document research conducted at The Hague University of Applied Sciences on the topic of environmental education in secondary schools in the Netherlands. As pointed out by the United Nations in 1977, environmental education is necessary to further sustainability. To find out what the role of environmental education can be, the following research question has been developed; 'How can environmental education cultivate children’s environmental awareness in secondary schools in the Netherlands?'. The need for a collaboration of all possible actors is necessary to reach the Sustainable Development Goals set by the United Nations (UNESCO, 2017). In order to answer the central question, different research methods have been chosen. Secondary quantitative and qualitative data have been collected through desk research. This was necessary to establish the appropriate theoretical framework. The variables from the literature review have been used for the collection of primary data through semi‐structured interviews. The interviews have taken place with secondary schools, Eco‐Schools, local municipal governments and Greenpeace. This was necessary to find out what the current efforts are and what is required to improve this. The results have shown that there are different interpretations on the concept of environmental education, nevertheless, the goal is to cultivate environmental awareness. In addition, the benefits of environmental education is generating targeted pro‐environmental behaviors. The most effective tools for cultivating children’s environmental awareness appeared to be inquiry‐based learning and the use of natural and ecological resources; outdoor education. Furthermore, current efforts in the Netherlands are insufficient; the policy area is fragmented and the concept itself is vague. As a result, secondary schools have difficulty to take ownership of the implementation of environmental education. The incorporation heavily relies on keen teachers and students. Government efforts exist, but due to the right to Freedom of Education, these efforts have not been structurally implemented. Lastly, NME departments develop educational tools with a clear link to policy themes and the school curriculum, but do not exist in all municipalities. This leads to the conclusion that environmental education can cultivate children’s environmental awareness best through inquiry‐based learning, experiential education and outdoor education. However, before this can be done, a structural approach towards environmental education should be enforced by the national government and integrated, mandatory or optional, into the school curriculum. Further research is recommended on the contribution of the private sector industry, and a closer look should be taken on how to make use of popular culture and online media platforms for stimulating pro‐environmental behaviors. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/kinga-feenstra-a09bbb141/
    • Online Access: http://www.hbo-kennisbank.nl/en/page/hborecord.view/?uploadId=sharekit_hh:oai:surfsharekit.nl:c50097b3-ce86-4886-b111-0de8a281d84a
    • Accession Number:
      edshbo.sharekit.hh.oai.surfsharekit.nl.c50097b3.ce86.4886.b111.0de8a281d84a
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      FEENSTRA, K.; MINKMAN, M. A. Environmental education in the Netherlands : Creating the willingness to act. [s. l.], 2019. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&scope=site&db=edshbo&AN=edshbo.sharekit.hh.oai.surfsharekit.nl.c50097b3.ce86.4886.b111.0de8a281d84a. Acesso em: 22 set. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Feenstra K, Minkman MA. Environmental education in the Netherlands : Creating the willingness to act. January 2019. Accessed September 22, 2020. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&scope=site&db=edshbo&AN=edshbo.sharekit.hh.oai.surfsharekit.nl.c50097b3.ce86.4886.b111.0de8a281d84a
    • APA:
      Feenstra, K., & Minkman, M. A. (2019). Environmental education in the Netherlands : Creating the willingness to act.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Feenstra, Kinga, and Marije A. Minkman. 2019. “Environmental Education in the Netherlands : Creating the Willingness to Act,” January. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&scope=site&db=edshbo&AN=edshbo.sharekit.hh.oai.surfsharekit.nl.c50097b3.ce86.4886.b111.0de8a281d84a.
    • Harvard:
      Feenstra, K. and Minkman, M. A. (2019) ‘Environmental education in the Netherlands : Creating the willingness to act’. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&scope=site&db=edshbo&AN=edshbo.sharekit.hh.oai.surfsharekit.nl.c50097b3.ce86.4886.b111.0de8a281d84a (Accessed: 22 September 2020).
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Feenstra, K & Minkman, MA 2019, ‘Environmental education in the Netherlands : Creating the willingness to act’, viewed 22 September 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Feenstra, Kinga, and Marije A. Minkman. Environmental Education in the Netherlands : Creating the Willingness to Act. Jan. 2019. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&scope=site&db=edshbo&AN=edshbo.sharekit.hh.oai.surfsharekit.nl.c50097b3.ce86.4886.b111.0de8a281d84a.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Feenstra, Kinga, and Marije A. Minkman. “Environmental Education in the Netherlands : Creating the Willingness to Act,” January 1, 2019. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&scope=site&db=edshbo&AN=edshbo.sharekit.hh.oai.surfsharekit.nl.c50097b3.ce86.4886.b111.0de8a281d84a.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Feenstra K, Minkman MA. Environmental education in the Netherlands : Creating the willingness to act. 2019 Jan 1 [cited 2020 Sep 22]; Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&scope=site&db=edshbo&AN=edshbo.sharekit.hh.oai.surfsharekit.nl.c50097b3.ce86.4886.b111.0de8a281d84a