Youth, University, and Canadian Society : Essays in the Social History of Higher Education

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    • Publication Information:
      Kingston; Montreal; London: MQUP, 1989.
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    • Original Material:
      416 p.
    • Abstract:
      Focusing on the student experience from the last quarter of the nineteenth century through the troubled 1960s, this collection of fourteen essays examines university life as a part of social and intellectual history. It brings to light the work of a new generation of researchers who have moved away from the narrower concern with institutional growth that has typified most historical writing in this field.
    • Contents Note:
      Front Matterp.iTable of Contentsp.vContributorsp.viiIntroductionAxelrod, PaulReid, John G.p.xiIn recent years there has been a remarkable flowering in the field of Canadian social history. Thanks to new work on the history of women, children, business, and the working class – written with increasing sensitivity to regional variations – Canadian historiography is richer, more ambitious, and more diverse than ever. Educational history has shared in this renaissance. Once the domain of boosters and builders, preoccupied with administrative evolution and antiquarian detail, the historiography of Canadian education now embraces a wider range of issues and probes them more deeply. Studies of the relationships between education and social class, social control,CHAPTER ONE - Student Populations and Graduate Careers: Queen’s University, 1895–1900Gaffield, ChadMarks, LynneLaskin, Susanp.3Historians have approached the history of education in two distinct, though often complementary, ways. Some focus on the process of education itself, while others explore the relationships among schools, students, and larger social and economic forces. The latter approach has been employed primarily by historians of primary and secondary education interested in the role of schools as instruments of social reproduction. Through their studies of student populations in the late nineteenth century these scholars have examined the extent to which dominant ideologies and class, gender, and ethnic divisions have shaped emerging school systems.¹ This investigative method can be applied fruitfullyCHAPTER TWO - College, Career, and Community: Dalhousie Coeds, 1881–1921Fingard, Judithp.26In the decades spanning the turn of the twentieth century Dalhousie University attracted students because of its Halifax location, its Presbyteria ambiance, and its professional programs. The enrolment of women increased gradually, from two in 1881 to 166 in 1921, the latter figure being equal to the total student enrolment for 1881. A qualitative change also occurred in women’s participation. By 1921 coeds had gained admission to all the existing courses, including medicine (1888), dentistry (1914), law (1915), commerce (1920), and engineering (1921). Unlike most of its contemporaries, however, Dalhousie offered very few “female” programs: only music was available amongCHAPTER THREE - Parade Street Parade: The Student Body at Memorial University College, 1925–49MacLeod, Malcolmp.51Of the major universities in Atlantic Canada, Memorial University of Newfoundland has the most recent foundation. Students were first admitted to the non-degree program of Memorial University College (muc) in 1925, four years after an ongoing operation for interdenominational teacher training – which eventually blended into Memorial’s offerings – had been started. The government policy that brought the college into existence was prompted in part by a desire to honour the war dead with a new institution to serve the living. It was also a response to the wish of Newfoundland’s leading educators to develop a more highly qualified corpsCHAPTER FOUR - Marching as to War: Elements of Ontario Undergraduate Culture, 1880–1914McKillop, A.B.p.75Student life outside the lecture halls of Ontario universities reflected the growing complexity of Ontario society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. By 1900 a discernible student culture was beginning to emerge, with undergraduates engaged increasingly in activities that went beyond academic requirements. Just as the curricula offered by universities and colleges underwent a division of labour as professors and administrators sought to provide a degree of scholarly order to the expanding realm of knowledge, so too did student life witness an expansion of extra-curricular activities. Increasingly students identified with some form of social group rather than, asCHAPTER FIVE - Hazes, Hustles, Scraps, and Stunts: Initiations at the University of Toronto, 1880–1925Walden, Keithp.94Over the past decade there has been a marked shift in the writing of university history to take into account the experiences of students as well as those of faculty and administrators.¹ This has derived in part from broader investigations of youth as a distinct social category,² but it is also a product of the reorientation of social history to recover the perspective of those who have been ignored heretofore in historical accounts. The effort to reincorporate the experiences of forgotten people, who often left no written records of their own, has led some historians to a new appreciation ofCHAPTER SIX - Student Life at Regina College in the 1920sPitsula, James M.p.122The discovery of adolescence in the first two decades of the twentieth century focused the concern of North Americans on the special needs and problems of youth.¹ In the 1920s concern escalated to alarm as books, magazines,and movies reported the antics of “flaming youth.” The youth of the 1920s initiated a sexual revolution, not a revolution resulting in a dramatic increase in sexual intercourse but a revolution growing out of new patterns of sexplay — dating, necking, and petting.² Young people flouted convention by smoking and drinking in public, and the dances they enjoyed most were the ones most criticizedCHAPTER SEVEN - Acadia and the Great WarMoody, Barry M.p.143At 5:30 a.m. on Monday, 11 November 1918, a startled Acadia University was awakened by the incessant ringing of the college bell, which in the past had summoned students and faculty to classes, calamity, and fire. This time it rang to announce the end of the Great War, in fact the end of all wars, or so the optimists believed.¹ In the months that followed many Acadia students would attempt to explain what impact the war had had upon themselves and their institution.² The valedictorian in June 1919 commented: “The war has accomplished its work. Its lessons are stamped indeliblyCHAPTER EIGHT - The War Effort and Women Students at the University of Toronto, 1939–45Kiefer, NancyPierson, Ruth Roachp.161During the Second World War the colleges and universities of Canada did not stand aside from the massive mobilization of the home front. Through the liaison agency of the National Conference of Canadian Universities, institutes of higher education across the country were drawn into co-operation with the wartime goals and priorities of the federal government. The policies adopted by universities to assist in Canada’s prosecution of the war did not, however, have a uniform effect on student bodies. In accordance with the differing needs of government, industry, and the military for womanpower as distinct from manpower, the war-related programs ofCHAPTER NINE - “The Call to Service”: The YWCA and the Canadian College Woman, 1886–1920Pedersen, Dianap.187According to a female student reporting in 1909 on “Life among the Women at University College, University of Toronto,” “the most popular social life of the girls is that which is solely for girls.” The first generations of Canadian college women were avid joiners, and a significant dimension of their experience of higher education was the opportunity to associate with other women in the multitude of religious, literary, athletic, and social clubs and societies within which they created what they liked to call “a ‘little sphere’ all their own.”¹ By seeking religious fellowship in societies such as the Young Women’sCHAPTER TEN - The Student Movement of the 1930sAxelrod, Paulp.216University students of the 1960s discovered the phenomenon of radical campus politics, but they did not invent it. Throughout history students have participated fervently in reformist and revolutionary movements. The 1930s provided conditions particularly conducive to students activism in Europe and North America. Collapsed capitalist economies, the rise of fascism, and the imminence of war threatened to deface or destroy the world that youth was preparing to enter. Even privileged, educated youth could not be insulated from these enormous pressures. How would they face the challenge? To what degree did their responses involve collective political action? While historians have examinedCHAPTER ELEVEN - “In Pursuit of Human Values (or Laugh When You Say That)”: The Student Critique of the Arts Curriculum in the 1960sJasen, Patriciap.247The first part of this essay’s title is taken from a collection of epigrams that are sprinkled, McLuhan style, through a book about student protest published in Canada in 1968.¹ The juxtaposition of academic cliché and flippant dismissal expressed the student activists’ conviction that a deep gulf separated the rhetoric and the reality of liberal-arts education in the universities of English Canada. For decades, administrators and professors had spoken of the importance of the arts curriculum in making society more humane. This was accomplished, they said, by passing on, to greater and greater numbers of students, the cherished “values” ofCHAPTER TWELVE - Beyond the Democratic Intellect: The Scottish Example and University Reform in Canada’s Maritime Provinces, 1870–1933Reid, John G.p.275On 1 November 1870 Dalhousie College’s newly appointed professor of mathematics, Charles Macdonald, gave his inaugural address at a convocation held in the Assembly chamber of Province House in Halifax. Although he opened with the conventional speech of welcome to new and returning students, he soon moved beyond such platitudes to deliver a vigorous attack on the shortcomings of denominational colleges in Nova Scotia. Macdonald advocated the creation of a single university for the province, and he went on to defend himself against any suggestion that he was being unrealistic. “I am not,” he insisted, “spinning a cobweb hypothesis outCHAPTER THIRTEEN - Financial Support for Post-graduate Students and the Development of Scientific Research in CanadaGingras, Yvesp.301According to the historian Hugh Hawkins, “the fellowship as an award to attract graduate students … was probably the crucial institutional invention that brought success to the early Johns Hopkins.”¹ The importance of financial-aid programs for students in the development of graduate studies, and thus in the development of university scientific research, is beyond doubt. However, the organic connection between the generation of knowledge and the training of professors willing to specialize in research, rather than in teaching, is of relatively recent origin in Canada. Before the First World War young Canadians who wished to pursue graduate study in scienceCHAPTER FOURTEEN - Father Georges-Henri Lévesque and the Introduction of Social Sciences at Laval, 1938–55Behiels, Michaelp.320The teaching of the social sciences took root in the francophone universities of Quebec at the beginning of a crucial period of socio-economic change stimulated by the Second World War. This process of change would contribute to the renewal of conflict between clerico-nationalist and liberal ideologies. Before the 1940s the Catholic church in Quebec – and the great majority of its clerics – supported the clerico-nationalist ideology, which had as its principal goal the “sacralization” of the institutions, customs, and values associated with the new industrialized urban society. The creation of the School of Social, Economic, and Political Sciences atSelect Bibliographyp.343Indexp.369
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      McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1989
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    • ABNT:
      AXELROD, P.; REID, J. G. Youth, University, and Canadian Society : Essays in the Social History of Higher Education. Kingston; Montreal; London: MQUP, 1989. ISBN 978-0-7735-0685-5. Disponível em: Acesso em: 15 jul. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Axelrod P, Reid JG. Youth, University, and Canadian Society : Essays in the Social History of Higher Education. Kingston; Montreal; London: MQUP; 1989. Accessed July 15, 2020.
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      Axelrod P, Reid JG. Youth, University, and Canadian Society : Essays in the Social History of Higher Education. MQUP; 1989. Accessed July 15, 2020.
    • APA:
      Axelrod, P., & Reid, J. G. (1989). Youth, University, and Canadian Society : Essays in the Social History of Higher Education. MQUP.
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      Axelrod, Paul, and John G. Reid. 1989. Youth, University, and Canadian Society : Essays in the Social History of Higher Education. Kingston; Montreal; London: MQUP.
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      Axelrod, P. and Reid, J. G. (1989) Youth, University, and Canadian Society : Essays in the Social History of Higher Education. Kingston; Montreal; London: MQUP. Available at: (Accessed: 15 July 2020).
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      Axelrod, P & Reid, JG 1989, Youth, University, and Canadian Society : Essays in the Social History of Higher Education, MQUP, Kingston; Montreal; London, viewed 15 July 2020, .
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      Axelrod, Paul, and John G. Reid. Youth, University, and Canadian Society : Essays in the Social History of Higher Education. MQUP, 1989. EBSCOhost,
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      Axelrod, Paul, and John G. Reid. Youth, University, and Canadian Society : Essays in the Social History of Higher Education. Kingston; Montreal; London: MQUP, 1989.
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      Axelrod P, Reid JG. Youth, University, and Canadian Society : Essays in the Social History of Higher Education [Internet]. Kingston; Montreal; London: MQUP; 1989 [cited 2020 Jul 15]. Available from: